Reading: Einleitung und Übung 1 von Mike Giesler

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Über den Vortrag

Der Vortrag „Reading: Einleitung und Übung 1“ von Mike Giesler ist Bestandteil des Kurses „Vorbereitungskurs TOEFL iBT“. Der Vortrag ist dabei in folgende Kapitel unterteilt:

  • Einleitung
  • The Rise of Teotihuacán
  • Arbeit mit dem Text
  • Fragetyp: Vokabel
  • Fragetyp: Ausschluss

Dozent des Vortrages Reading: Einleitung und Übung 1

 Mike Giesler

Mike Giesler

Mike Giesler ist Dozent für SAT und TOEFL Kurse und kennt sich als solcher bestens aus mit den TOEFL Anforderungen. Er ist Experte für die englische Sprache und bietet Expertise in den Bereichen Auslandsstudium, Studienplatzvergabe und Stipendium.

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... Anzahl der Texte. Texte bestehen aus jeweils ca. 700 Wörtern. Zu jedem Text werden 12 bis 14 Fragen gestellt ...

... nur Punkte für richtige Antworten. Für das Lesen oder Verstehen des ...

... Unbeantwortete Fragen = keine Punkte. Im Notfall ...

... workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings. Clearly, much planning and central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of this great metropolis. Moreover, the city had economic and perhaps religious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (Modern Central America and Mexico). 2. How did this tremendous development take place, and why did it happen in the Teotihuacán Valley? Among the main factors are Teotihuacán’s geographic location on a natural trade route to the south and east of the Valley of Mexico, the obsidian resources in the Teotihuacán Valley itself, and the valley’s potential for extensive irrigation. The exact role of other factors is much more difficult to pinpoint—for instance, Teotihuacán’s religious significance as a shrine, the historical situation in and around the Valley of Mexico toward the end of the first millennium B.C., the ingenuity and ...

... immigrants to Teotihuacán. The growing power of the elite, who controlled the economy, would give them the means to physically coerce people to move to Teotihuacán and serve as additions to the labor force. More irrigation works would have to be built to feed the growing population, and this resulted in more power and wealth for the elite. Obsidian: a type of volcanic glasslike rock used for manufacturing tools and ceremonial objects Directions: now answer the questions. 1. The word “massive” in paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to (A) ancient (B) carefully planned (C) very large (D) carefully ...

... of volcanic inactivity in the Teotihuacán Valley (D) Teotihuacán’s location on a natural trade route 6. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraphs 2 and 3 about the volcanic eruptions of the late first millennium B.C.? (A) They were more frequent than historians once thought. (B) They may have done more damage to Teotihuacán than to neighboring centers. (C) They may have played a major role in the rise of Teotihuacán. (D) They increased the need for extensive irrigation in the Teotihuacán Valley. 7. What can be inferred from paragraph 3 about Cuicuilco prior to 200 B.C.? (A) It was a fairly small city until ...

... of Teotihuacán, which lay about 50 kilometers northeast of modern-day Mexico City, began its growth by 200 –100 B.C. At its height, between about A.D. 150 and 700, it probably had a population of more than 125,000 people and covered at least 20 square kilometers. (A) It had over 2,000 apartment complexes, a great market, a large number of industrial workshops, an administrative center, a number of massive religious edifices, and a regular grid pattern of streets and buildings. (B) Clearly, much planning and central control were involved in the expansion and ordering of this great metropolis. (C) Moreover, the city had economic and perhaps religious contacts with most parts of Mesoamerica (Modern Central America and Mexico). (D) (A) Option A (B) Option B (C) Option C (D) Option D 14. Directions: ...

... and sophistication of the architectural, administrative, commercial, and religious features of Teotihuacán indicate the existence of centralized planning and control. (B) Teotihuacán may have developed its own specific local religion as a result of the cultural advances made possible by the city’s great prosperity. (C) Several factors may account for Teotihuacán’s extraordinary development, ...

... section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English. You ...

... continents back into the major ocean basins. No one knows why. Over a period of about 100,000 years, while the seas pulled back, climates around the world became dramatically more extreme: warmer days, cooler nights; hotter summers, colder winters. Perhaps dinosaurs could not tolerate these extreme temperature changes and became extinct. 3 If true, though, why did cold-blooded animals such as snakes, lizards, turtles, and crocodiles survive the freezing winters and torrid summers? These animals are at the mercy of the climate to maintain a liveable body temperature. It’s hard to understand why they would not be affected, whereas dinosaurs were left too crippled to ...

... clay. Scientists felt that they could get an idea of how long the extinctions took by determining how long it took to deposit this one centimeter of clay and they thought they could determine the time it took to deposit the clay by determining the amount of the element iridium (Ir) it contained. 5 If has not been common at Earth’s surface since the very beginning of the planet’s history. Because it usually exists in a metallic state, it was preferentially incorporated in Earth’s core as the planet cooled and consolidated. If is found in high concentrations in some meteorites, in which the solar system’s original chemical composition is preserved. Even today, microscopic meteorites continually bombard Earth, falling on both land and sea. By measuring how many of these meteorites fall to Earth over a ...

... were not as sensitive to climate changes in the Cretaceous period as they are today 4. The word “cope” in, he passage is closes, in meaning, (A) adapt (B) move (C) continue (D) compete 5. according paragraph 3, which of the following is true of changes in climate before \the Crebaceous period and the effect of these changes of dinosaurs? (A) Climate changes associated with the movement of seaways before the Cretaceous period did not cause dinosaurs to become extinct. (B) Changes in climate before the Cretaceous period caused severe fluctuation ...

... end of the Cretaceous. (C) Fossils from the Cretaceous period of the Mesozoic up to the beginning of the Cenozoic era have been removed from the layers of rock that surrounded them. (D) Plants and animals from the Mesozoic era were unable to survive in the Cenozoic era. 8. In paragraph 4, all the following questions are answered except: (A) Why is there a layer of clay between the rocks of the Cretaceous and Cenozoic? (B) Why were scientists interested in determining how long it took to deposit the layer of clay at the end of the Cretaceous? (C) What was the effect of the surprising observation scientists made? (d) Why did scientists want more information ...

... These calculations suggest that a period of about one million years would have been required. (B) However, other reliable evidence suggests that the deposition of the boundary clay could not have taken one million years. (C) So the unusually high concentration of Ir seems to require a special explanation. (D) (A) Option A (B) Option B (C) Option C (d) Option d 14. Directions: all in\produce\bury sell\belle for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete summary by selecting the three answer choices have expressed the most important ideas in the passage. Some species do lost belong in the summary because ...

... climate change does not explain some important data related to the extinction of the dinosaurs at the end of the Cretaceous. (C) The retreat of the seaways at the end of the Cretaceous has not been fully explained. (d) The abruptness of extinctions at the ...

... hardened sediment that had once been soft, deep-sea mud as well as granules of gypsum 1 and fragments of volcanic rock. not a single pebble was found that might have indicated that the pebbles came from the nearby continent. In the days following samples of solid gypsum were repeatedly brought on deck as drilling operations penetrated the seafloor. Furthermore the gypsum was found to possess peculiarities of composition and structure that suggested it had formed on desert flats. Sediment above and below the gypsum 1 layer contained tiny marine fossils indicating open- ocean conditions. As they drilled into the central and deepest part of the Mediterranean basin, the scientists took solid, shiny, crystalline salt from the core barrel. Interceded with the salt were thin layers of what appeared to be windblown silt. The time had come to formulate a hypothesis. The investigators theorized that about 20 million years ago the Mediterranean was a broad seaway linked to ...

... pebbles observed in the first sample taken by the Challenger. As the basin was refilled\b normal marine organisms returned. Soon layers of oceanic ooze began to accumulate above the old hard layer. 5 The salt and gypsum 1. the faunal changes and the unusual gravel provided abundant evidence that the Mediterranean was once a desert. 1. gypsum: a mineral made of calcium sulfate and water Direc\biols: now answer the questions. 15. The word “objective ” in the passage is closest in meaning to (A) achievement (B) requirement (C) purpose (d) feature 16. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in paragraph 1 as a change that occurred ...

... (A) The evaporation of chemicals necessary for their survival (B) Crustal movements that connected the Mediterranean to the saltier Atlantic (C) The migration of new species through the narrow straits (D) Their inability to tolerate the increasing salt content of the Mediterranean 24. Which of the seltbelces below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted seltbelce in paragraph 4. If correct choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. (A) The Strait of Gibraltar reopened when the Mediterranean and the Atlantic became connected and the cascades of water from one sea to the other caused crustal adjustments and faulting. (B) The Mediterranean was dramatically refilled by water from the Atlantic when crustal adjustments and faulting opened the Strait ...

... the passage is closest in meaning to (A) fresh (B) deep (C) violent (D) temperate 27. In paragraph 2 of the passage, there is a missing sentence. The paragraph is repeated below and shows four letters (a, B, C, and D) that indictable where the following sentence could be added. Thus, scientists had information about the shape of the domes but lor about their chemical composition and origin. Where would the sentence best fit? (a) Another task for the Glomar Challenger’s scientists was to try to determine the origin of the domelike masses buried deep beneath the Mediterranean ...

... seafloor. (d) Samples recovered from the expedition revealed important differences in chemical composition and fossil distribution among the sediment layers. (E) Evidence collected by the Glomar Challenger supports geologists’ beliefs that the Mediterranean had evaporated and become a desert before it refilled ...

... section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English. You ...

... Asia, as probably were domestic sheep and goats. Horses were apparently introduced by the Hyksos invaders of Egypt (1780-1560 b.c.) and then spread across the Sudan to West Africa. Rock paintings in the Sahara indicate that horses and chariots were used to traverse the desert and that by 300–200 b.c., there were trade routes across the Sahara. Horses were adopted by peoples of the West African savannah, and later their powerful cavalry forces allowed them to carve out large empires. Finally, the camel was introduced around the first century a.d. This was an important innovation, because the camel’s ability to thrive in harsh desert conditions and to carry large loads cheaply made it an effective and efficient means of transportation. The camel transformed the desert from a barrier into a still difficult, but more accessible, route of trade and communication. 3 ...

... the Americas, where metallurgy was a very late and limited development, Africans had iron from a relatively early date, developing ingenious furnaces to produce the high heat needed for production and to control the amount of air that reached the carbon and iron ore necessary for making iron. Much of Africa moved right into the Iron Age, taking the basic technology and adapting it to local conditions and resources. 6 The diffusion of agriculture and later of iron was accompanied by a great movement of people who may have carried these innovations. These people probably originated in eastern Nigeria. Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara. They spoke a language, proto-lantu (“bantu” means “the people”), which is the parent ...

... (B) far-reaching (C) necessary (D) temporary 8. The word “ritual” in the passage is closest in meaning to (A) military (B) physical (C) ceremonial (D) permanent 9. according to paragraph 4, all of the following were social effects of the new metal technology in africa except: (A) Access to metal tools and weapons created greater social equality. (B) Metal weapons increased the power of warriors. (C) Iron tools helped increase the food supply. (D) Technical knowledge gave religious power to its holders. 10. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave ...

... a missing sentence. The paragraph is repeated below and shows four letters (A, B, C, and D) that indicate where the following sentence could be added. These people had a significant linguistic impact on the continent as well. Where would the sentence best fit? The diffusion of agriculture and later of iron was accompanied by a great movement of people who may have carried these innovations. These people probably originated in eastern Nigeria. (A ) Their migration may have been set in motion by an increase in population caused by a movement of peoples fleeing the desiccation, or drying up, of the Sahara. (B) They spoke a ...

... use of livestock improved transportation and trade and allowed for new forms of political control. (D) As the Sahara expanded, the camel gained in importance, eventually coming to have religious significance. (E) The spread of iron working ...

... section measures your ability to understand academic passages in English. You ...

... versions seen in the wet sand of our beaches at low tide) that have been found on the plains close to the ends of the outflow channels. Judging from the width and depth of the channels, the flow rates must have been truly enormous — perhaps as much as a hundred times greater than the 105 tons per second carried by the great Amazon river. Flooding shaped the outflow channels approximately 3 billion years ago, about the same time as the northern volcanic plains formed. 3) Some scientists speculate that Mars may have enjoyed an extended early period during which rivers, lakes, and perhaps even oceans adorned its surface. A 2003 Mars Global Surveyor image shows what mission specialists think may be a delta — a fan-shaped network of channels and sediments where a river once flowed into a larger body ...

... case they have nothing whatever to do with Martian water. Furthermore, Mars Global Surveyor data released in 2003 seem to indicate that the Martian surface contains too few carbonate rock layers — layers containing compounds of carbon and oxygen — that should have been formed in abundance in an ancient ocean. Their absence supports the picture of a cold, dry Mars that never experienced the extended mild period required to form lakes and oceans. However, more recent data imply that at least some parts of the planet did in fact experience long periods in the past during which liquid water existed on the surface. 5) Aside from some small-scale gullies (channels) found since 2000, which are inconclusive, astronomers have no direct evidence for ...

... that may have once been covered with an ocean? (B) Where do mission scientists believe that the river forming the delta emptied? (C) Approximately how many craters on Mars do mission scientists believe may once have been lakes filled with water? (D) During what period of Mars’ history do some scientists think it may have had large bodies of water? 8) according to paragraph 3, images of Mars’ surface have been interpreted as support for the idea that (A) the polar regions of Mars were once more extensive than they are now (B) a large part of the northern lowlands may once have been under water (C) deltas were once a common feature of the Martian landscape (D) the shape of the Hellas lasin has changed considerably over time. 9) What can be inferred from paragraph 3 ...

... geological forces in the Northern Hemisphere of Mars, rather than to Martian water in the south. (D) lot detractors argue that geological forces depressed the Northern Hemisphere so far below the level of the south that the terraces could not have been formed by water. 11) according to paragraph 4, what do the 2003 global Surveyor data suggest about Mars? (A) Ancient oceans on Mars contained only small amounts of carbon. (B) The climate of Mars may not have been suitable for the formation of large bodies of water. (C) Liquid water may have existed on some parts of Mars’ surface for long periods of time. (D) The ancient oceans that formed on Mars dried up during periods of cold, dry weather. 12) The word “hints” in the passage is closest in meaning to ...

... evidence of flowing water. (B) The runoff and outflow channels of Mars apparently carried a higher volume of water and formed more extensive networks than do Earth’s river systems. (C) Mars’ runoff and outflow channels are large-scale, distinctive features that suggest that large quantities of liquid water once flowed on Mars. (D) Although some researchers claim that Mars may once have had oceans, others dispute this, pointing to an absence of evidence or offering alternative interpretations of evidence. (E) ...

... the network of military garrisons, which were stationed in every province, and the network of stone-built roads that linked the provinces with Rome. The organizational bonds were based on the common principles of law and administration and on the universal army of officials who enforced common standards of conduct. The psychological controls were built on fear and punishment — on the absolute certainty that anyone or anything that threatened the authority of Rome would be utterly destroyed. 2) The source of the Roman obsession with unity and cohesion may well have lain in the pattern of Rome’s early development. Whereas Greece had grown from scores of scattered cities, Rome grew from one single organism. While the Greek world had expanded along the Mediterranean sea lanes, the Roman world was assembled by territorial conquest. Of course, the contrast is not quite so stark: In Alexander the Great, the Greeks had found the greatest territorial conqueror of all time; and the Romans, once they moved outside Italy, did ...

... writers of high caliber. Directions: Now answer the questions. 15. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. (A) The regularity and power of stone walls inspired Romans attempting to unify the parts of their realm. (B) Although the Romans used different types of designs when building their walls, they used regular controls to maintain their realm. (C) Several types of control united the Roman realm, just as design and cement held Roman walls together. (D) Romans built walls to unite the various parts of their realm into ...

... Roman leaders (C) To give an example of a Greek leader whom Romans studied (D) To indicate the superior organization of the Greek military 20. The word “fostered” in the passage is closest in meaning to (A) accepted (B) combined (C) introduced (D) encouraged 21. Paragraph 3 suggests which of the following about the people of Latium? (A) Their economy was based on trade relations with other settlements. (B) They held different values than the people of Rome. (C) Agriculture played a significant role in their society. (D) They possessed unusual knowledge of animal instincts. 22. Paragraph 4 indicates that some historians admire Roman ...

... a larger scale. Greek civilization had quality; Rome, mere quantity. Greece was original; Rome, derivative. Greece had style; Rome had money. Greece was the inventor, Rome the research and development division. Such indeed was the opinion of some of the more intellectual Romans. “Had the Greeks held novelty in such disdain as we,” asked Horace in his Epiltlel, “what work of ancient date would now exist?” (A) Option A (B) Option l (C) Option C (D) Option D 28. Directions: an introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the three-answer-choices that express the most important ideas in the ...

... (B) The Roman military was organized differently from older military organizations. (C) Romans valued sea power as did the Latins, the original inhabitants of Rome. (D) Roman ...

... 1-2 Minuten -Text überfliegen -Groben Überblick über ...

... to a) ancient b) carefully planned c) very large ...

... 2. Aus dem Sinn des Textes die Bedeutung ableiten. Achtung: Vokabel kann mehrere ...

... to a) ancient b) carefully planned c) very large ...

... paragraph 2 is closest in meaning ...

... to a) most agressive b) most productive c) principal ...

... mentioned as a feature of the city of Teotihuacán between A.D. 150 ...

... vorkommende Argumente/Stellen finden und (gedanklich) wegstreichen. Richtige Antwort bleibt übrig. Achtung: Alle Antworten können ...

... mentioned as a feature of the city of Teotihuacán between A.D. 150 ...

... potential for extensive irrigation of Teotihuacán Valley Island c) A long period of volcanic inactivity in the ...

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