Letzte Vorbereitungen zum TOEFL iBT von Mike Giesler

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Über den Vortrag

Der Vortrag „Letzte Vorbereitungen zum TOEFL iBT“ von Mike Giesler ist Bestandteil des Kurses „Vorbereitungskurs TOEFL iBT“. Der Vortrag ist dabei in folgende Kapitel unterteilt:

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Dozent des Vortrages Letzte Vorbereitungen zum TOEFL iBT

 Mike Giesler

Mike Giesler

Mike Giesler ist Dozent für SAT und TOEFL Kurse und kennt sich als solcher bestens aus mit den TOEFL Anforderungen. Er ist Experte für die englische Sprache und bietet Expertise in den Bereichen Auslandsstudium, Studienplatzvergabe und Stipendium.

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... is: Do you think it is better to take risks or to be cautious? Then you should give reasons to support your opinion. If you take the position that you think it is better to take risks and try new things, you might give an example of a time when you or someone you know took a risk and was rewarded. The example should have good details, and the relationship between the example and your opinion should be clear. If you take the position that it is better to be cautious, you might give an ...

... Speaking Rubrics (see Appendix). To respond to this particular question, you should explain the two pricing strategies described by the professor. You should include relevant points and examples from the lecture (and not from any other source). To begin your response, you could define what a pricing strategy is as explained at the beginning of the lecture. You could briefly mention that companies need to determine an initial price when they first bring their products to the market. Then you would explain the first approach. You could say that one strategy sets prices high, but the prices become lower at a later stage. In your response, you would need to explain that companies using this strategy make high profits at early stages of the product lifecycle (when the product first comes out). You would then need to include the example mentioned in the lecture. The initial high price approach works well with innovative high-tech products, for example, when video cameras (or video recorders, or cell ...

... is important to understand from the lecture is that the professor disagrees with the points made in the reading, namely that American consumers mistrust advertising, that they are unwilling to pay extra for ecocertified products, and that American companies do not need to compete in parts of the world where ecocertification is valued. In your response, you should convey the reasons presented by the professor for why ecocertification of wood should be adopted by U.S. companies. A high-scoring response will include the following points made by the professor that cast doubt on the points made in the reading: This task is scored using the Integrated Writing Rubrics (see Appendix). A response that ...

... may at times not be immediately clear. Speech is basically intelligible, though listener effort is needed because of unclear articulation, awkward intonation, or choppy rhythm/pace; meaning may be obscured in places. The response demonstrates limited range and control of grammar and vocabulary. These limitations often prevent full expression of ideas. For the most part, only basic sentence structures are used successfully and spoken with fluidity. Structures and vocabulary may express mainly simple (short) and/or general propositions, with simple or unclear connections made among them (serial listing, conjunction, juxtaposition). The response is connected to the task, though the number of ideas presented or the development of ideas is limited. Mostly basic ideas are expressed with limited elaboration (details and support). At times relevant substance may be vaguely expressed or repetitious. Connections of ideas may be unclear. ...

... meaning). The response presents a clear progression of ideas and conveys the relevant information required by the task. It includes appropriate detail, though it may have minor errors or minor omissions. Speech is generally clear, with some fluidity of expression, but it exhibits minor difficulties with pronunciation, intonation or pacing and may require some listener effort at times. Overall intelligibility remains good, however. The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and fairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit some imprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures or be somewhat limited in the range of structures used. Such limitations do not seriously interfere with the communication of the message. The response is sustained and conveys relevant information required by the task. However, it exhibits some incompleteness, inaccuracy, lack of specificity with respect to content, or choppiness in the progression of ideas. ...

... Some key points made in the lecture or the reading, or connections between the two, may be incomplete, inaccurate, or imprecise. • Errors of usage and/or grammar may be more frequent or may result in noticeably vague expressions or obscured meanings in conveying ideas and connections. A response at this level contains some relevant information from the lecture, but is marked by significant language difficulties or by significant omission or inaccuracy of important ideas from the lecture or in the connections between the lecture and the reading; a response at this level is marked by one or more of the following: • The response significantly misrepresents or completely omits the overall connection between the lecture and the reading. • The response significantly omits or significantly misrepresents important points made in the lecture. • The response contains language errors or expressions that largely obscure connections or meaning at key junctures, or that ...

... There are many ways to answer this question. It is important to chose one place and to give a clear explanation for your suggestion. Your response should not be a simple list of places to visit. You must explain why someone from another country should visit that one city or place. As with all speaking tasks your response should be intelligible should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary and should be well developed and coherent. This task is scored using the Independent Speaking Rubric (see Appendix). Speaking Practice Se 2 47. To respond to this particular question you should explain the concept of revealing coloration as it was presented in the reading. Revealing coloration is a defense strategy in which an animal surprises or confuses predators by suddenly revealing bright-colored parts of its body. You should use the two examples given by the professor to explain the concept. You should convey the information that the peanut bug has ...

...After briefly describing the problem you should choose one of the two solutions mentioned in the conversation to recommend. The two solutions in this conversation are: 1) that she use the computer lab or 2) that she call the repair shop to see if they could have her computer ready sooner. It does not matter which of the two proposed solutions you choose since there is no “right” solution or “wrong” solution. You should choose the solution that you think is best and support your choice with reasons why you think it is best. The reasons you give can include information provided by the speakers as well as your own experiences. If you believe the first solution is preferable you would probably begin by saying that you think it would be best for the woman to use the computer lab...

... development of your essay is judged by the amount and kinds of support (reasons examples details) that you present and a well-developed essay will contain clearly appropriate reasons examples and details—ones that do a good job supporting or illustrating the points you are making. Development is not simply the number of words you write. Your response should be well organized...

...It is generally well developed and coherent; relationships between ideas are clear (or clear progression of ideas). 3 The response addresses he asks appropriately, but may fall short of being fully developed. I is generally intelligible and coherent, with some fluidity of expression though it exhibits some noticeable lapses in the expression of ideas. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following: Speech is generally clear with some fluidity of expression though minor difficulties with pronunciation intonation or pacing are noticeable and may require listener effort at times (though overall intelligibility is not significantly affected). The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary and fairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit some imprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures or be somewhat limited in the range of structures used. This may affect overall fluency but it does not seriously interfere with the communication of the message. Response is mostly coherent and sustained and conveys relevant ideas/information. Overall development is somewhat limited usually lacks elaboration or specificity...

... It contains some intelligible speech, but at times problems with intelligibly and /or overall coherence may obscure meaning. a response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following: Speech is clear at times though it exhibits problems with pronunciation intonation or pacing and so may require significant listener effort. Speech may not be sustained at a consistent level throughout. Problems with intelligibility may obscure meaning in places (but not throughout). The response is limited in the range and control of vocabulary and grammar demonstrated (some complex structures may be used but typically contain errors). This results in limited or vague expression of relevant ideas and imprecise or inaccurate connections. Automaticity of expression may only be evident at the phrasal level. The response conveys some relevant information but is clearly incomplete or inaccurate. It is incomplete if it omits key ideas makes vague reference to key ideas or demonstrates limited development of important information. An inaccurate response demonstrates misunderstanding of key ideas from the stimulus. Typically ideas expressed may not be well connected or cohesive so that familiarity with the stimulus is necessary in order to follow what is being ...

...Addresses the topic and task well though some points may not be fully elaborated. Is generally well organized and well developed using appropriate and sufficient explanations exemplifications and/or details. Displays unity progression and coherence though it may contain occasional redundancy digression or unclear connections. Displays facility in the use of language demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary though it will probably have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure word form or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning 3 an essay at his level is marked by one or more of the following...

... be intelligible, should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and should be well developed and coherent. This task is scored using the Independent Speaking Rubrics (see Appendix A). Speaking Practice Set 2 33. To respond to this particular question, you should state the man’s opinion of the university’s plan to play classical music over the loudspeakers in the cafeterias during mealtimes. In this case, the man disagrees with the university’s plan. After stating that the man disagrees with the plan, you should convey the two main reasons he gives for holding that opinion. You will need to connect information from the conversation to the reading in order for the response to be complete. The man says that the first reason given for the music— that music will help students relax during meals— isn’t valid. He says that students actually want to study during meals, not relax. You could also point out that students would probably find the music distracting. Your response ...

... major factors of quality are reliability and features. Then you would explain the first factor of product quality: reliability. You could say that reliability is the absence of any defects or problems. Then you would talk about how the role of reliability has changed over time: In the past, people thought mainly about reliability, but today people think less about it because products are reliable in general. You would then need to include the example mentioned in the lecture. The professor mentions that today when people buy cars, reliability isn’t a factor in decision making because everyone assumes cars are reliable. In your response, you would also need to explain the second major factor of product quality mentioned in the lecture: features. You would ...

... he waited for his property to be sold. The memoir claims to recount accurate conversations between the Chevalier and the famous writer Voltaire; this cannot be true, since it was written so many years after the conversations occurred. Each night after the conversations took place, the Chevalier wrote down everything he could remember from them. Witnesses confirm that when writing his memoir years later, the Chevalier regularly consulted these notes. The memoir states that the Chevalier escaped from a Venetian prison by making a hole in the ceiling and climbing through the roof; this is unlikely, ...

... sufficient to the task. It is generally well developed and coherent; relationships between ideas are clear (or clear progression of ideas). 3) The response addresses the task appropriately, but may fall short of being fully developed. It is generally intelligible and coherent, with some fluidity of expression though it exhibits some noticeable lapses in the expression of ideas. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following: Speech is generally clear, with some fluidity of expression, though minor difficulties with pronunciation, intonation, or pacing are noticeable and may require listener effort at times (though overall intelligibility is not significantly affected). The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and fairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit some imprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures or be somewhat limited in the range of structures used. This may affect overall fluency, but it does not seriously interfere with the communication of the message. Response is mostly coherent and sustained and conveys relevant ideas/information. Overall development is somewhat limited, usually lacks elaboration or specificity. Relationships between ideas ...

... connected to the task, though it may be missing some relevant information or contain inaccuracies. It contains some intelligible speech, but at times problems with intelligibility and/or overall coherence may obscure meaning. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following: Speech is clear at times, though it exhibits problems with pronunciation, intonation or pacing and so may require significant listener effort. Speech may not be sustained at a consistent level throughout. Problems with intelligibility may obscure meaning in places (but not throughout). The response is limited in the range and control of vocabulary and grammar demonstrated (some complex structures may be used, but typically contain errors). This results in limited or vague expression of relevant ideas and imprecise or inaccurate connections. Automaticity of expression may only be evident at the phrasal level. The response conveys some relevant information but is clearly incomplete or inaccurate. It is incomplete if it omits key ideas, makes vague reference to key ideas, or demonstrates limited development of important information. An inaccurate response demonstrates misunderstanding of key ideas from the stimulus. Typically, ideas expressed may not be well connected or cohesive so that familiarity with the stimulus is necessary in order to follow what ...

... the reading, but it may have minor omission, inaccuracy, vagueness, or imprecision of some content from the lecture or in connection to points made in the reading. A response is also scored at this level if it has more frequent or noticeable minor language errors, as long as such usage and grammatical structures do not result in anything more than an occasional lapse of clarity or in the connection of ideas. 3) A response at this level contains some important information from the lecture and conveys some relevant connection to the reading, but it is marked by one or more of the following: Although the overall response is definitely oriented to the task, it conveys only vague, global, unclear, or somewhat imprecise connection of the points made in the lecture to points made in the reading. The response may omit one major key point made in the lecture. ...

... know what they needed to take in their final year to be OK. But we don’t do that anymore … Student I-I definitely met with my chairperson two years ago. Uh, he told me that I needed eight more courses at the intermediate level or higher in the last two years to be OK … so I’m not sure what the problem is. I made sure I got those credits. Registrar: Unfortunately, the computer’s usually pretty reliable … so I’m not sure what’s going on here. Student: It could be that I’ve taken two basic courses but coupled both of them with field experiences. ...

... but the computer’s still showing them as basic-level courses, despite the fieldwork. Student: I’m not sure what to do, then. I mean, should I cancel my graduation party? Registrar: No! No reason to get worried like that. Just contact your chairperson immediately, OK? Uh, tell him to call me as soon as possible so that we can verify your fieldwork arrangement and certify those credits right away. It’s not like there’s an ...

... and what else? Mike? Male student: Well, finding food is always important — and, uh, I guess, not becoming food for other animals … Professor: Right on both accounts. Avoiding other predators — and locating prey — uh, typically insects that fly around at night. Now, before I go on, let me just respond to something Carol was saying — this idea that bats are blind … actually, there are some species of bats — the ones that don’t use ...

... For example, one echo they’d quickly identify is the one they associate with a moth, which is common prey for a bat — particularly, a moth beating its wings. However, moths happen to have a major advantage over most other insects: they can detect ultrasound. This means that, when a bat approaches, the moth can detect the bat’s presence … so it has time to escape to safety … or else they can just remain motionless — since, um, when they stop beating their wings, they’d be much harder for the bat to distinguish from, oh, a leaf … or some other object … Now, we’ve tended to underestimate just how sophisticated the abilities of animals that use ultrasound are. In fact, we kind of assumed that they were filtering a lot out — uh, the way a sophisticated radar system can ignore echoes from stationary objects on the ground. Radar does this to remove “ground clutter”— information about, um, hills or buildings that it doesn’t need …

... Carol was saying — this idea that bats are blind ... Narrator: Why does the professor say this? Professor: Now, before I ...

... in demand for eyeglasses. And here’s something you probably haven’t thought of: This increased demand impacted societal attitudes towards eyeglasses. But, um, first let me back up a bit and talk about vision correction before the printing press. And what did people with poor vision do — I mean especially those few people who were actually literate — what did they do before glasses were invented? Well, they had different ways of dealing with not seeing well. If you think about it, poor vision wasn’t their only problem. I mean, think about the conditions they lived in: Houses were dark, sometimes there weren’t any windows, candles were the only source ...

... affluence, wealth. In fourteenth-century Chinese portraits, the bigger the glasses, the smarter and wealthier the subject was. So glasses were a status symbol in some parts of the world. Now let’s get back to the invention of the printing press in 1440. What happened? Suddenly books became readily available, and more people wanted to read, so the need, well actually, not only the need, but the demand for more affordable glasses rose drastically. Eventually, inexpensive glasses were produced and then glasses were available to everyone. People could purchase them easily from a traveling peddler. Transcript for Track ...

... Transcript for Track 9: Narrator: Now listen to two students discussing the university’s plan. Male Student: Did you read this article? Are they serious? Female Student: Yeah, I think so. Why? Male Student: Well, first of all, a lot of kids aren’t looking for a relaxing break at lunchtime. They like to study while they eat, especially if they have exams coming up, or some assignment they have to get done. Female ...

... defects or problems that you weren’t expecting. It used to be that when people thought about product quality, they thought mainly about reliability. Today it’s different. People do still care about reliability, don’t get me wrong. It’s just that manufacturing standards are now so high that … take cars for example; today, today’s cars all very reliable. So reliability is important, but it’s not gonna be the deciding factor. So if reliability isn’t the deciding factor any more, what is? Features — all those extras, the things a product has that aren’t really necessary, but that make it easier to use or that make it cool: for example, ...

... the three episodes mentioned in the reading. First, the loan from the merchant: Well, that doesn’t mean that the Chevalier was poor. Let me explain. We know that in Switzerland, the Chevalier spent huge amounts of money on parties and on gambling. And he had wealth, but it was the kind of property you have to sell first to get money. So it usually took a few days to convert his assets into actual money. So when he ran out of cash, he had to borrow some while he was waiting for his money to arrive — but that’s not being ...

... able to maintain good marks in all your classes. Perhaps it also showed what a true friend the person was. As with all speaking tasks, your response should be intelligible, should demonstrate effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and should be well developed and coherent. This task is scored using the Independent Speaking Rubric (see Appendix A). To respond to this particular question you should explain the concept of behavior modification as it was presented in the reading. Behavior modification occurs when individuals change their behavior because of consequences. You should then use the example given by the professor to explain the concept. You should talk about how children learn in school that misbehaving (such as interrupting the teacher) brings punishment (such as not being allowed to play outside). On the other hand, following the rules (such as paying attention in ...

... does not matter which of the two proposed solutions you chose, since there is no “right” solution or “wrong” solution. You should choose the solution that you think is best and support your choice with reasons why you think it is best. The reasons you give can include information provided by the speakers as well as your own experiences. For example, if you believe the first solution is preferable, you would probably begin by saying that you think it would be best for the man to take one of the classes as an independent study, then you would proceed to explain why. There are any number of reasons you can give: you might say that the professor would be available to help him whenever he needs it, and he could do all the assignments whenever he had the time to work on them. You could also speak about the disadvantages of the second solution; for example, if he had to drive to the other university three ...

... read from the beginning to the end of the essay without becoming confused. You should be sure not to just repeat the same information in different ways. The quality and accuracy of the sentence structure ...

... sufficient to the task. It is generally well developed and coherent; relationships between ideas are clear (or clear progression of ideas). The response addresses the task appropriately, but may fall short of being fully developed. It is generally intelligible and coherent, with some fluidity of expression though it exhibits some noticeable lapses in the expression of ideas. A response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following: Speech is generally clear, with some fluidity of expression, though minor difficulties with pronunciation, intonation, or pacing are noticeable and may require listener effort at times (though overall intelligibility is not significantly affected). The response demonstrates fairly automatic and effective use of grammar and vocabulary, and fairly coherent expression of relevant ideas. Response may exhibit some imprecise or inaccurate use of vocabulary or grammatical structures or be somewhat limited in the range of structures used. This may affect overall fluency, but it does not seriously interfere with the communication of the message. Response is mostly coherent and sustained and conveys relevant ideas/information. Overall development is somewhat limited, usually lacks elaboration or specificity. Relationships between ideas ...

... connected to the task, though it may be missing some relevant information or contain inaccuracies. It contains some intelligible speech, but at times problems with intelligibility and/or overall coherence may obscure meaning. a response at this level is characterized by at least two of the following: Speech is clear at times, though it exhibits problems with pronunciation, intonation or pacing and so may require significant listener effort. Speech may not be sustained at a consistent level throughout. Problems with intelligibility may obscure meaning in places (but not throughout). The response is limited in the range and control of vocabulary and grammar demonstrated (some complex structures may be used, but typically contain errors). This results in limited or vague expression of relevant ideas and imprecise or inaccurate connections. Automaticity of expression may only be evident at the phrasal level. The response conveys some relevant information but is clearly incomplete or inaccurate. It is incomplete if it omits key ideas, makes vague reference to key ideas, or demonstrates limited development of important information. An inaccurate response demonstrates misunderstanding of key ideas from the stimulus. Typically, ideas expressed may not be well connected or cohesive so that familiarity with the stimulus is necessary in order to follow what ...

... essay at this level largely accomplishes all of the following: • addresses the topic and task well, though some points may not be fully elaborated • is generally well organized and well developed, using appropriate and sufficient explanations, exemplifications, and/or details • displays unity, progression, and coherence, though it may contain occasional redundancy, digression, or unclear connections • displays facility in the use of language, demonstrating syntactic variety and range of vocabulary, though it will probably have occasional noticeable minor errors in structure, word form, or use of idiomatic language that do not interfere with meaning. An essay at this level is marked by one or more of the following: • addresses the topic and task using somewhat developed explanations, exemplifications, ...

... all came out. Student: Right. Now, uh, I just overheard some graduate students talking … something about a party for Dean Adams? Professor: Retirement party, yes … all students are invited. Wasn’t there a notice on the anthropology department’s bulletin board? Student: Uh, I don’t know. but … I wanted to offer to help out with it. You know, whatever you need. Dean Adams, well, I took a few anthropology classes with her, and they were great. Inspiring. And, well, I just wanted to pitch in. Professor: Oh, that’s very thoughtful ...

... the articles … I hesitate to mention it, but I don’t suppose this is something you would … Student: No, that sounds kinda cool. I’d like to see what they’re writing about. Professor: Wonderful … and there are also some unpublished studies. Did you know Dean Adams did a lot of field research in Indonesia? Most of it hasn’t been published yet. Student: No, like what? Professor: Well, she’s really versatile. She just spent several months studying social interactions in Indonesia, and she’s been influential in ethnology. Oh, and she’s also done work in South America that’s closer to biology, especially with speciation. Student: Uh, not ...

... waterproof, and this waterproof quality of the bark, oh, it made it useful for making things like cooking containers, um … a-a variety of utensils. And … i-if you peel birch bark in the winter, eh, we call it the “winter bark”, um, another layer, a tougher inner layer of the tree adheres to the bark, producing a stronger material … so the “winter bark” was used for larger utensils and containers. Male student: Umm, I know people make ...

... the woods were often overgrown, so, so water travel was much faster. And here’s what the Native Americans did … they would peel large sheets of bark from the tree to form lightweight yet sturdy canoes. The bark was stretched over frames made from tree branches, uh, stitched together and sealed with resin, you know that, that sticky liquid that comes out of the tree and when it dries, it’s watertight. One great thing about these birch bark canoes was, uh, they could carry a large amount of cargo. For example, a canoe weighing about 50 pounds could carry up to 9 people and 250 pounds of cargo. Female student: Wow! But … how far could they travel that way? Professor: Well, like I said, the northeastern region is, uh, interconnected by rivers and streams, and, uh, the ocean at the coast. ...

... tried walking in snowshoes, you know isn’t easy. Transcript for Track 4: Narrator: Why does the student say this? Male student: Umm, I know people make utensils out of wood, but … utensils out of tree bark? Transcript for Track 5: Narrator: ...

... the wind. And if the seeds land in a suitable habitat, they do well and reproduce. With active habitat selection, an organism is able to physically select where to live and breed, and because an animal’s breeding habitat is so important, we’d expect animal species to have developed preferences for particular types of habitats, places where their offspring have the best chance of survival. So let’s look at the effect these preferences can have by looking at some examples. But first let’s recap. What do ...

... choice of habitat seems to affect reproductive success. Because the older, more experienced birds, who nest in the high-density shrub areas, have significantly more offspring than those in low-density areas. Which suggests that the choice of where to nest does have an impact on the number of chicks they have. But a preferred environment doesn’t always seem to correlate with greater reproductive success. For example, in Europe, studies have been done of blackcap warblers, we just call them blackcaps. The blackcap can be found in two different environments. Ah, their preferred habitat is forests near the edges of streams. However, blackcaps also live in pine woods away from water. Studies' been done on ...

... suitability of the prime habitat even though it’s their preferred habitat. So the results of the studies suggest that when the number of competitors in the prime habitat reaches a certain point, the second-ranked habitat becomes just as successful as the prime habitat, just because ...

... they act this way. They might get punished, they have to sit at their desks when everyone else is allowed to go outside and play. And they certainly don’t like that. Soon they’ll learn that this kind of behavior gets them in trouble. They’ll also learn that when they raise their hand to talk to the teacher, and sit quietly and pay attention during class … they’re rewarded. The teacher tells them she’s proud of them, and maybe puts ...

... my last semester, and I’ve still got two required courses left to take in order to finish my literature degree. Female student: OK … Male student: I have to take both History of the Novel and Shakespeare, or I can’t graduate. Problem is, the two courses meet at the same time! Female student: Uh-oh. What’re you gonna do? Male student: Well, I talked to the professor who’s gonna teach Shakespeare. He said I could do an independent study to fulfill that requirement. Female student: How would that ...

... come back. Three times a week. That’s a lot of time and gas money … Narrator: Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution ...